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john's wort

What is it?

St. John's wort is an herbal medicine used to treat mild to moderate depression, anxiety, and seasonal affective disorder. It is also used to increase memory and concentration.

Other names for St. John's wort include: Hypericum perforatum , common St. John's wort, Klamath weed

Ask your doctor, nurse, or pharmacist if you need more information about this medicine or if any information in this leaflet concerns you.

Before Using:

Tell your doctor if you ...

  • are taking medicine or are allergic to any medicine (prescription or over-the-counter (OTC) or dietary supplement).
  • are pregnant or plan to become pregnant while using this medicine.
  • are using any other medicines.
  • are breastfeeding.
  • have any other health problems, such as high blood pressure or heart or blood vessel disease.

Dosage:

Talk with your doctor, pharmacist, or nurse about how much St. John's wort you should take. The amount depends on the strength of the medicine and the reason you are taking St. John's wort. If you are using this medicine without instructions from your caregiver, follow the directions on the label. Do not take more St. John's wort or take it more often than what is written on the directions.

To store this medicine:

Keep all medicine locked up and away from children. Store medicine away from heat and direct light. Do not store your medicine in the bathroom, near the kitchen sink, or in other damp places. Heat or moisture may cause the medicine to break down and not work the way it should work. Throw away medicine that is out of date or that you do not need. Never share your medicine with others.

Drug and Food Interactions:

Do not take St. John's wort without talking to your doctor first if you are taking:

  • Acitretin (Soriatane(R)) (44)
  • Aminolevulinic acid (Levulan Kerastick(R)) (46)
  • The following medicine used to treat fungus infections: voriconazole (Vfend(R)) (82)
  • Amiodarone (Cordarone(R), Pacerone(R)) (49)
  • Medicines used to treat angina (chest pain): ranolazine (Ranexa(R)) (85)
  • Blood thinning medicines (examples: bivalirudin (Angiomax(R)), heparin, warfarin (Coumadin(R))) (29,30)
  • Dasatinib (Sprycel(R)) (79)
  • Medicines used for diabetes to lower blood sugar (examples: insulin, gliclazide, glyburide (DiaBeta(R), Glynase PresTab(R), Micronase(R)), metformin (Glucophage(R), Glucovance(R)); rosiglitazone (Avandia(R))) (33)
  • Drugs used for sleep or anxiety (examples: alprazolam (Xanax(R)), lorazepam (Ativan(R)), diazepam (Valium(R), midazolam (Versed(R))) (33)
  • Medicines for high blood pressure or heart problems (examples: atenolol (Tenormin(R)), metoprolol (Toprol(R) Lopressor(R)), diltiazem (Cardizem(R) Dilacor(R)), verapamil (Calan(R) Isoptin(R)), nifedipine (Adalat(R), Procardia(R))) (14)
  • Medicines used during anesthesia (examples: bupivacaine (Marcaine(R)), etomidate (Amidate(R)), halothane (Fluothane(R)), ketamine (Ketalar(R)), tetracaine (Pontocaine(R)), vecuronium (Norcuron(R))) (43,73)
  • Carbamazepine (Tegretol(R)) (28)
  • Clozapine (Clozaril(R)) (21)
  • Birth control pills and other hormonal contraceptives may interact with St. John's wort, resulting in unplanned pregnancy (11,53)
  • Medicine used to suppress the immune system (examples: cyclosporine (Sandimmune(R), Neoral(R), Sang Cya(R)); sirolimus (Rapamune(R)); tacrolimus (Prograf(R))) (10,56,58,67,69-71)
  • Digoxin (Lanoxin(R)), digitoxin (Crystodigin(R)) (55)
  • Medicines used to lower cholesterol (examples: atorvastatin (Lipitor(R)), fluvastatin (Lescol(R)), lovastatin (Mevacor(R)), pravastatin (Pravachol(R)), rosuvastatin (Crestor(R)), simvastatin (Zocor(R))) (25)
  • Loperamide (Imodium(R)) (15)
  • Methadone (46)
  • Medicines used to treat pain (examples: codeine, fentanyl (Duragesic(R)), hydrocodone (Vicodin(R), Lorcet(R)), morphine (MS Contin(R), MSIR(R), Oramorph(R)), oxycodone (Endocet(R), Endodan(R), Oxycontin(R), Percocet(R), Percodan(R)), propoxyphene (Darvon(R), Darvocet(R))) (48), tramadol (Ultram(R)) (81)
  • Omeprazole (Prilosec(R)) (51)
  • Phenytoin (Dilantin(R)), phenobarbital (Luminal(R)) (28)
  • Medicines used to treat AIDS or HIV disease (protease inhibitors and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, including indinavir (Crixivan(R)), darunavir (Prezista(R)), delavirdine (Rescriptor(R)), efavirenz (Sustiva(R)), etravirine (Intelence(TM)), lamivudine (Epivir(R)), nelfinavir (Viracept(R)), nevirapine (Viramune(R)), ritonavir (Norvir(R)), saquinavir (Invirase(R)), zidovudine (Retrovir(R))) (7,23,83,84)
  • Drugs used to treat depression or anxiety, including citalopram (Celexa(R)), escitalopram (Lexapro(R)), fluoxetine (Prozac(R)), fluvoxamine (Luvox(R)), paroxetine (Paxil(R)), sertraline (Zoloft(R)), venlafaxine (Effexor(R)), buspirone (Buspar(R)) (22,27,41,62-66)
  • Drugs used to treat depression, including amitriptyline (Elavil(R)), clomipramine (Anafranil(R)), desipramine (Norpramin(R)), imipramine (Tofranil(R)), nefazodone (Serzone(R)), nortriptyline (Pamelor(R)), olanzapine (Zyprexa (R)), protriptyline (Vivactil(R)) (18,22,26,27,62-66)
  • Medicines for migraine headaches (examples: sumatriptan (Imitrex(R)), naratriptan (Amerge(R)), rizatriptan (Maxalt(R)), zolmitriptan (Zomig(R)) (24,59)
  • Reserpine (Resa(R), Serpalan(R)) (72)
  • Theophylline (TheoDur(R) Respbid(R) SloBid(R)) (21)
  • Trazodone (Desyrel(R)) (18)
  • Over-the-counter allergy, cold, or flu medicines (examples: dextromethorphan, fexofenadine) (76, 77)
  • Medicines used to treat Parkinson's disease or depression (isocarboxazid (Marplan(R)), tranylcypromine (Parnate(R)), phenelzine (Nardil(R), selegiline (Eldepryl(R), Emsam(R), Zelapar(R), rasagiline (Azilect(R)) (60,61)
  • Levothyroxine (Levothroid(R), Synthroid(R)) (74)
  • Drugs used to treat cancer, including cyclophosphamide (Cytoxan(R)), irinotecan (Camptosar(R)), paclitaxel (Taxol(R)), sunitinib (Sutent(R)), tamoxifen (Nolvadex(R), imatinib (Gleevec(TM)). Etoposide (VePesid(R)), temsirolimus (Torisel(R))(2,7,10,14,31,32,40,45,52,54,56-58,67,69,80)
  • Estrogen and similar medicines used for hormone replacement (examples: conjugated estrogens (Premarin(R), Prempro(R)); estradiol (Alora(R), Climara(R))) (46)
  • Ginkgo biloba (Ginkoba(R)) (66)
  • Other medicines which cause your skin to be sensitive to the sun (there are many, so ask your doctor or pharmacist) (75)
  • Foods which contain tyramine (examples: anchovies, avocados, bananas, caffeine foods, cheese, aged cheese, strong cheese, chocolate, canned figs, liqueurs, wine, chianti wine, beer, tenderized meat, beef, liver, chicken liver, meat extracts, genoa salami, salami, hard salami, dry sausage, bologna, pepperoni, smoked fish, caviar, pickled herring, soy sauce, lebanon, miso, raisins, sauerkraut, sherry, sour cream, soybean paste, brewer's yeast, yeast extract, yogurt) (34)
  • Medicines used to treat enlarged prostate in men, and also slows hair loss in male pattern baldness (examples: finasteride (Propecia(R), Proscar(R))) (86)
  • Medicines used to treat hyponatremia (low amount of sodium in the blood) (example: tolvaptan (Samsca(TM))) (87)
  • Medicines used to treat serious heart rhythm problems in patients with a history of atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter (example: dronedarone (Multaq(R))) (88)

Warnings:

  • Before taking St. John's wort, tell your doctor if you are pregnant or breastfeeding.
  • You may need to take this medicine for 2 to 4 weeks before you start to feel any change.
  • St. John's wort may interact with many more medicines than are listed here. Talk to your doctor or pharmacist before taking St. John's wort with any other medicine.
  • This medicine may make your skin more sensitive to sunlight. Use a sunscreen when you are outdoors. Avoid sunlamps and tanning beds (5,13,75,78).

Side Effects:

Stop taking your medicine right away and talk to your doctor if you have any of the following side effects.

  • Allergic reaction: Itching or hives, swelling in your face or hands, swelling or tingling in your mouth or throat, chest tightness, trouble breathing, or rash.

Other Side Effects:

You may have the following side effects, but this medicine may also cause other side effects. Tell your doctor if you have side effects that you think are caused by this medicine.

  • Nausea, upset stomach, diarrhea, loss of appetite (6)
  • Swelling (39)
  • Drowsiness (38)
  • Restlessness (68,70)
  • Headache (68,70)
  • Sexual difficulties (39)
  • Frequent urination (39)

References:

1. Vorbach EU, Huebner WD & Arnoldt KH: Effectiveness and tolerance of the hypericum extract LI 160 in comparison with imipramine: randomized double-blind study to 135 outpatients. J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol 1994; 7(Suppl 1):S19-S23.

2. Peebles KA, Baker RA, Kurz EU et al: Catalytic inhibition of human DNA topoisomerase IIalpha by hypericin, a naphthodianthrome from St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum). Biochem Pharmacol 2001; 62(8):1059-1070.

3. Mueller WE & Schaefer C: Johanniskraut. In vitro Studie ueber Hypericum-Extrakt, Hypericin, und Kaempferol als Antidepressiva. DAZ 1996; 136:1015-1022.

4. Fachinformation Hyperimerck 260mg(R), hypericum extract. Merck Generika GmbH, Darmstadt, Germany; 1997.

5. Roots T: Evaluation of photosensitization of the skin and multiple dose intake of Hypericum extract. Second International Congress on Phytomedicine. Munich, Germany; 1996.

6. Woelk H, Burkard G & Gruenwald J: Benefits and risks of the Hypericum extract LI 160: drug monitoring with 3250 patients. J Geriatric Psychiatry Neurol 1994; 7(Suppl 1):34-38.

7. Piscitelli SC, Burstein AH, Chaitt D et al: Indinavir concentrations and St. John's wort. Lancet 2000; 355.

8. Fachinformation: Helarium(R) Hypericum, hypericum extract. Bionorica GmbH, Neumarkt, Germany; 1996.

9. Fachinformation: Remotiv(R), hypericum extract. Bayer AG, Pharma Deutschland, Leverkusen, Germany; 1996.

10. Ruschitzka F, Meier P, Turina M et al: Acute heart transplant rejection due to St. John's wort. Lancet 2000; 355:548-549.

11. Gorski J, Hamman M, Wang Z et al: The effect of St. John's wort on the efficacy of oral contraception (abstract MPI-80). Clin Pharmacol Ther 2002; 71(2):P25

12. Ernst E: Second thoughts about safety of St. John's wort. Lancet 1999; 354(9195):2014-2015.

13. Brockmoller J, Reum T, Bauer S et al: Hypericin and pseudohypericin: pharmacokinetics and effects on photosensitivity in humans. Pharmacopsychiatry 1997; 30(suppl):94-101.

14. Anon: St. John's wort: drug interactions and safety. Alt Med Alert 2000; 3(6):71-72.

15. Khawaja IS, Marotta RF & Lippmann S: Herbal medicines as a factor in delirium (letter). Psychiatr Serv 1999; 50(7):969-970.

16. Beckman SE, Sommi RW & Switzer J: Consumer use of St. John's wort: A survey on effectiveness, safety, and tolerability. Pharmacotherapy 2000; 20(5):568-574.

17. Roots I, Johne A, Schmider J et al: Interaction of a herbal extract from St. John's wort with amitriptyline and its metabolites (abstract). Clin Pharmacol Ther 2000; 67(2):159.

18. DeMott K: St John's wort tied to serotonin syndrome. Clin Psychiatry 1998; 26:28.

19. Jokovljevic V, Popovic M, Mimica-Dukic N et al: Pharmacodynamic study of Hypericum perforatum L. Phytomedicine 2000; 7(6):449-453.

20. Anon: Risk of drug interactions with St. John's wort. JAMA 2000; 283(13):1679.

21. Nebel A, Schneider BJ, Baker RK et al: Potential metabolic interaction between St. John's wort and theophylline. Ann Pharmacother 1999; 33(4):502.

22. Lantz M, Buchalter E & Giambanco V: St. John's wort and antidepressant drug interactions in the elderly. J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol 1999; 12(1):7-10.

23. De Maat MMR, Hoetelmans RMW, Mathot RAA et al: Drug interaction between St. John's wort and nevirapine. AIDS 2001; 15(3):420-421.

24. Wonnemann M, Singer A & Muller WE: Inhibition of synaptosomal uptake of H-L-glutamate and H-GABA by hyperforin, a major constituent of St. John's wort: the role of amiloride sensitive sodium conductive pathways. Neuropsychopharmacology 2000; 23(2):188-197.

25. Sugimoto K, Ohmori M, Tsuruoka S et al: Different effects of St. John's wort on the pharmacokinetics of simvastatin and pravastatin. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2001; 70(6):518-524.

26. Prost N, Tichadou L, Rodor F et al: Interaction millepertuis-venlafaxine (article in French). Presse Med 2000; 29:1285-1286.

27. Barbanel DM, Yusufi B, O'Shea D et al: Mania in a patient receiving testosterone replacement post-orchidectomy taking St. John's wort and sertraline. J Psychopharmacol 2000; 14:84-86.

28. Burstein AH, Horton RL, Dunn T et al: Lack of effect of St. John's wort on carbamazepine pharmacokinetics in healthy volunteers. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2000; 68(6):605-612.

29. Yue QY, Bergquist C & Gerden B: Safety of St. John's wort. Lancet 2000; 355:576-577.

30. Maurer A, Johne A, Bauer S et al: Interaction of St. John's wort extract with phenprocoumon (abstract). Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1999; 55:A22.

31. Bolley R, Zulke C, Kammerl M et al: Tacrolimus-induced nephrotoxicity unmasked by induction of the CYP3A4 system with St. John's wort. Transplantation 2002; 73(6):1009.

32. Mathijssen RHJ, Verweij J, DeBruijn P et al: Effects of St. John's wort on irinotecan metabolism. J Natl Cancer Inst 2002; 94(16):1247-1249.

33. Wang Z, Gorski JC, Hamman MA et al: The effects of St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) on human cytochrome P450 activity. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2001; 70(4):317-326.

34. Patel S, Robinson R & Burk M: Hypertensive crisis associated with St. John's wort. Am J Med 2002; 112(6):507-508.

35. Stevinson C & Ernst E: A pilot study of Hypericum perforatum for the treatment of premenstrual syndrome. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 2000; 107(7):870-876.

36. Wheatley D: Hypericum in seasonal affective disorder (SAD). Curr Med Res Opin 1999; 15(1):33-37.

37. Martinez B, Kasper S, Ruhrmann S et al: Hypericum in the treatment of seasonal affective disorders. J Geriat Psych Neurol 1994; 7(1):29-33.

38. Vorbach EU, Arnold KH & Hubner WD: Efficacy and tolerability of St. John's wort extract hypericum extract LI 160 in patients with severe depressive incidents according to ICD-10. Pharmacopsychiatry 1997; 30 (suppl 1):S81-S85.

39. Hypericum Depression Trial Study Group: Effect of hypericum perforatum (St. John's wort) in major depressive disorder. JAMA 2002; 287(14):1807-1814.

40. Gurley BJ, Gardner SF, Hubbard MA et al: Cytochrome P450 phenotypic ratios for predicting herb-drug interactions in humans. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2002; 72(3):276-287.

41. Dannawi M: Possible serotonin syndrome after combination of buspirone and St. John's wort. J Psychopharmacol 2002; 16(4):401.

42. Eich-Hochli D, Oppliger R, Golay KP et al: Methadone maintenance treatment and St. John's wort. Pharmacopsychiatry 2003; 36(1):35-37.

43. Irefin S & Sprung J: A possible cause of cardiovascular collapse during anesthesia: Long-term use of St. John's wort. J CLin Anesth 2000; 12:498-499.

44. Product Information: Soriatane(R), acitretin. Roche Laboratores, Inc, Nutley, NJ; 2003.

45. Product Information: Gleevec(TM), imatinib mesylate. Novartis Pharmaceuticals, East Hanover, NJ; 2003.

46. Ladner DP, Klein SD, Steiner RA et al: Synergistic toxicity of delta-aminolaevulinic acid-induced protoporphyrin IX used for photodiagnosis and hypericum extract, a herbal antidepressant. Br J Dermatol 2001; 144(4):916-918.

47. Upton R (ed): St. John's wort, Hypericum perforatum: quality control, analytical and therapeutic monograph. Am Herbal Pharmacopoeia, Santa Cruz, CA; 1997.

48. Hussain MD: Saint John's wort and analgesia: Effect of St. John's wort on morphine induced analgesia. AAPS Pharm Sci 2000; 2(2):Abstract 1810.

49. Product Information: Cordarone(R), amiodarone. Wyeth Laboratories, Philadelphia, PA (PI revised 08/2001), reviewed 12/2003.

50. Hebert MF, Park JM, Chen Y-L et al: Effects of St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) on tacrolimus pharmacokinetics in healthy volunteers. J Clin Pharmacol 2004; 44:89-94.

51. Wang L-S, Zhou G, Zhu B et al: St Johns wort induces both cytochrome P450 3A4-catalyzed sulfoxidation and 2C19-dependent hydroxylation of omeprazole. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2004; 75(3):191-197.

52. Frye RF, Fitzgerald SM, Lagattuta TF et al: Effect of St. John's wort on imatinib mesylate pharmacokinetics. Abstract PDII-B-4. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2004; 75(2):96.

53. Schwarz UI, Buschel B & Kirch W: Unwanted pregnancy on self-medication with St. John's wort despite hormonal contraception (letter). Br J Clin Pharmacol 2003; 55(1):112-113.

54. Boddy AV, Yule SM. Metabolism and pharmacokinetics of oxazaphosphorines. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2000 Apr; 38(4):291-304.

55. Johne A, Brockmoller J, Bauer S et al: Pharmacokinetic interaction of digoxin with an herbal extract from St. John's wort (hypericum perforatum). Clin Pharmacol Ther 1999; 66(4):338-345.

56. Yu DK: The contribution of P-glycoprotein to pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions. J Clin Pharmacol 1999; 39:1203-1211.

57. Moore LB, Goodwin B, Jones SA et al: St. John's wort induces hepatic drug metabolism through activation of the pregnane X receptor. Proc Nat Acad Sci 2000; 97(13):7500-7502.

58. Hennessy M, Kelleher D, Spiers JP et al: St. John's wort increases expression of P-glycoprotein: implications for drug interactions. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2002; 53(1):75-82.

59. Muller JL & Clauson KA: Pharmaceutical considerations of common herbal medicine. Am J Manag Care 1997; 3(11):1753.

60. Demisch L, Holzl J, Gollnik B et al: Identification of selective MAO-type A inhibitors in Hypericum perforatum L. (Hyperforat (R)). Pharmacopsychiatry 1989; 22:194.

61. Bladt S & Wagner H: Inhibition of MAO by fractions and constituents of hypericum extract. J Geriat Psych Neurol 1994; 7(1):57-59.

62. Gordon J: SSRIs and St. John's wort: possible toxicity? Am Fam Physician 1998; 57(5):950-953.

63. Waksman JC, Heard K, Jolliff H et al: Serotonin syndrome associated with the use of St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) and paroxetine (abstract). Clin Toxicol 2000; 38(5):521.

64. Singer A, Wonnemann M & Muller WE: Hyperforin, a major antidepressant constituent of St. John's wort, inhibits serotonin uptake by elevating free intracellular Na+. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1999; 290(3):1361-1368.

65. Thiede HM & Walper A: Inhibition of MAO and COMT by hypericum and hypericum extracts. J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol 1994; 7(suppl 1):S54-S56.

66. Spinella M & Eaton LA: Hypomania induced by herbal and pharmaceutical psychotropic medicines following mild traumatic brain injury. Brain Injury 2002; 16(4):359-367.

67. Durr D, Stiger B, Kullak-Ublick GA et al: St. John's wort induces intestinal P-glycoprotein/MDR1 and intestinal and hepatic CYP3A4. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2000; 68(6):598-604.

68. Baillie N: Hypericum - Four hypersensitivity reactions. Modern Phytotherapist 1998; 25:1-3.

69. Roby CA, Anderson GD, Kantor E et al: St. John's wort: effect on CYP3A4 activity. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2000; 67(5):451-457.

70. Wheatley D: Hypericum extract: potential in the treatment of depression. CNS Drugs 1998; 9(6):431-440.

71. Mai I, Stormer E, Bauer S et al: Impact of St. John's wort treatment on the pharmacokinetics of tacrolimus and mycophnolic acid in renal transplant patients. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2003; 18:819-822.

72. Okpanyi VSN & Weischer ML: Tierexperimentelle Untersuchungen zur psychotropen Wirksamkeit eines Hypericum-Extraktes. Arzneimittel-Forsch 1987; 37(1):10-13.

73. Crowe S & McKeating K: Delayed emergence and St. John's wort. Anesthesiology 2002; 96(4):1025-1027.

74. Ferko N & Levine MA: Evaluation of the association between St. John's wort and elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone. Pharmacotherapy 2001; 21(12):1574-1578.

75. Lane-Brown MM: Photosensitivity associated with herbal preparations of St John's wort (letter). Med. J Aust 2000; 172(6):302

76. Wang Z, Hamman MA, Huang SM et al: Effect of St. John's wort of the pharmacokinetics of fexofenadine. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2002; 71(6):414-420.

77. Markowitz JS, Devane CL, Boulton DW et al: Effect of St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) on cytochrome P450 2D6 and 3A4 activity in healthy volunteers. Life Sci 2000; 66(9):133-139.

78. Jacobson JM, Feinman L, Liebes L et al: Pharmacokinetics, safety, and antiviral effects of hypericin, a derivative of St. John's wort plant, in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2001; 45(2):517-524.

79. Product Information: Sprycel(R) oral tablets, dasatinib oral tablets. Bristol-Myers Squibb, Princeton, NJ, 2008.

80. Product Information: Torisel(TM) KIT IV injection, temsirolimus IV injection. Wyeth Pharmaceuticals,Inc, Philadelphia, PA, 2007.

81. Product Information: Ultram ER(R) extended-release oral tablets, tramadol hcl extended-release oral tablets. PriCara, Raritan, NJ, 12/00/2005.

82. Product Information: Vfend(R) IV injection, oral tablets, suspension, voriconazole IV injection, oral tablets, solution. Roerig, New York, NY, Mar 1, 2008.

83. Product Information: Prezista(R) film coated oral tablets, darunavir film coated oral tablets. Tibotec,Inc, Raritan, NJ, 2008.

84. Product Information: Intelence(TM) oral tablets, etravirine oral tablets. Tibotec Therapeutics,Inc, Raritan, NJ, 2008.

85.Product Information: Ranexa(R) extended-release oral tablets, ranolazine extended-release oral tablets. CV Therapeutics Inc, Palo Alto, CA, 2008.

86. Lundahl A, Hedeland M, Bondesson U, et al: The effect of St. John's wort on the pharmacokinetics, metabolism and biliary excretion of finasteride and its metabolites in healthy men. Eur J Pharm Sci 2009; 36(4-5):433-443.

87. Product Information: Samsca(TM) oral tablets, tolvaptan oral tablets. Otsuka Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan, 2009.

88. Product Information: Multaq(R) oral tablets, dronedarone oral tablets. sanofi-aventis U.S. LLC, Bridgewater, NJ, 2009.


Last Updated: 1/4/2010
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