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Isosorbide dinitrate (Oral route, sublingual route)

Pronunciation:

eye-soe-SOR-bide dye-NYE-trate

Brand Names:

  • Dilatrate-SR
  • Isochron
  • IsoDitrate
  • Isordil Titradose
  • Apo-Isdn
  • Isordil

Dosage Forms:

  • Tablet, Chewable
  • Tablet
  • Capsule, Extended Release
  • Tablet, Extended Release

Classifications:

Therapeutic—

Antianginal

Chemical—

Nitrate

Uses of This Medicine:

Isosorbide dinitrate is used to prevent angina (chest pain) caused by coronary artery disease. It does not work fast enough to relieve the pain of an angina attack that has already started.

Isosorbide dinitrate belongs to the group of medicines called nitrates. It works by relaxing the blood vessels and increasing the supply of blood and oxygen to the heart while reducing its work load. When used regularly on a long-term basis, this helps prevent angina attacks from occurring.

This medicine is available only with your doctor's prescription.

Before Using This Medicine:

In deciding to use a medicine, the risks of taking the medicine must be weighed against the good it will do. This is a decision you and your doctor will make. For this medicine, the following should be considered:

Allergies—

Tell your doctor if you have ever had any unusual or allergic reaction to this medicine or any other medicines. Also tell your health care professional if you have any other types of allergies, such as to foods, dyes, preservatives, or animals. For non-prescription products, read the label or package ingredients carefully.

Children—

Appropriate studies have not been performed on the relationship of age to the effects of isosorbide dinitrate in the pediatric population. Safety and efficacy have not been established.

Older adults—

Appropriate studies performed to date have not demonstrated geriatric-specific problems that would limit the usefulness of isosorbide dinitrate in the elderly. However, elderly patients are more likely to have age-related liver, kidney, or heart problems, which may require caution and an adjustment in the dose for patients receiving isosorbide dinitrate.

Pregnancy—

Pregnancy CategoryExplanation
All TrimestersCAnimal studies have shown an adverse effect and there are no adequate studies in pregnant women OR no animal studies have been conducted and there are no adequate studies in pregnant women.

Breast-feeding—

There are no adequate studies in women for determining infant risk when using this medication during breastfeeding. Weigh the potential benefits against the potential risks before taking this medication while breastfeeding.

Other medicines—

Although certain medicines should not be used together at all, in other cases two different medicines may be used together even if an interaction might occur. In these cases, your doctor may want to change the dose, or other precautions may be necessary. When you are taking this medicine, it is especially important that your healthcare professional know if you are taking any of the medicines listed below. The following interactions have been selected on the basis of their potential significance and are not necessarily all-inclusive.

Using this medicine with any of the following medicines is not recommended. Your doctor may decide not to treat you with this medication or change some of the other medicines you take.

  • Avanafil
  • Riociguat
  • Sildenafil
  • Tadalafil
  • Vardenafil

Other interactions—

Certain medicines should not be used at or around the time of eating food or eating certain types of food since interactions may occur. Using alcohol or tobacco with certain medicines may also cause interactions to occur. Discuss with your healthcare professional the use of your medicine with food, alcohol, or tobacco.

Other medical problems—

The presence of other medical problems may affect the use of this medicine. Make sure you tell your doctor if you have any other medical problems, especially:

  • Congestive heart failure or
  • Heart attack, recent or
  • Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (a heart disease) or
  • Hypotension (low blood pressure) or
  • Hypovolemia (low amount of blood)—Use with caution. May make these conditions worse.

Proper Use of This Medicine:

Take this medicine exactly as directed by your doctor. Do not take more of it, do not take it more often, and do not take it for a longer time than your doctor ordered.

This form of nitrate is used to reduce the number of angina attacks over a long time. It will not relieve an attack that has already started because it works too slowly. The extended-release form releases medicine gradually to provide its effect for 8 to 10 hours. Check with your doctor if you also need a fast-acting medicine to relieve the pain of an angina attack.

You should take this medicine first thing in the morning and follow the same schedule each day. This medicine works best if you have a "drug-free" period of time every day when you do not take it. Your doctor will schedule your doses during the day to allow for a drug-free time. Follow the schedule of dosing carefully so the medicine will work properly.

Sublingual tablets should not be chewed, crushed, or swallowed. They work much faster when absorbed through the lining of the mouth. Place the tablet under the tongue and let it dissolve there. Do not eat, drink, smoke, or use chewing tobacco while a tablet is dissolving.

Swallow the extended-release tablet or capsule whole. Do not split, crush, or chew it.

Dosing—

The dose of this medicine will be different for different patients. Follow your doctor's orders or the directions on the label. The following information includes only the average doses of this medicine. If your dose is different, do not change it unless your doctor tells you to do so.

The amount of medicine that you take depends on the strength of the medicine. Also, the number of doses you take each day, the time allowed between doses, and the length of time you take the medicine depend on the medical problem for which you are using the medicine.

  • For angina prevention:
    • For oral dosage forms (extended-release tablets or sustained-release capsules):
      • Adults—At first, 40 milligrams (mg) two times a day. Your doctor may increase your dose as needed. However, the dose is usually not more than 160 mg per day.
      • Children—Use and dose must be determined by your doctor.
    • For oral dosage form (tablets):
      • Adults—At first, 5 to 20 milligrams (mg) two or three times a day. Your doctor may increase your dose as needed.
      • Children—Use and dose must be determined by your doctor.
    • For sublingual dosage form (tablets):
      • Adults—2.5 to 5 milligrams (mg) about 15 minutes before expected physical or emotional stress.
      • Children—Use and dose must be determined by your doctor.

Missed dose—

If you miss a dose of this medicine, take it as soon as possible. However, if it is almost time for your next dose, skip the missed dose and go back to your regular dosing schedule. Do not double doses.

Storage—

Store the medicine in a closed container at room temperature, away from heat, moisture, and direct light. Keep from freezing.

Keep out of the reach of children.

Do not keep outdated medicine or medicine no longer needed.

Ask your healthcare professional how you should dispose of any medicine you do not use.

Precautions While Using This Medicine:

If you will be taking this medicine for a long time, it is very important that your doctor check your progress at regular visits to make sure that this medicine is working properly. Blood tests may be needed to check for unwanted effects.

Do not take avanafil (Stendra®), riociguat (Adempas®), sildenafil (Viagra®), tadalafil (Cialis®), or vardenafil (Levitra®) while you are using this medicine. Using these medicines together may cause blurred vision, dizziness, lightheadedness, or fainting. If you are taking these medicines and you experience an angina attack, you must go to the hospital right away.

This medicine may cause headaches. These headaches are a sign that the medicine is working. Do not stop using the medicine or change the time you use it in order to avoid the headaches. If you have severe pain, talk with your doctor.

Dizziness, lightheadedness, or faintness may occur, especially when you get up quickly from a lying or sitting position. Getting up slowly may help.

Dizziness, lightheadedness, or fainting is also more likely to occur if you drink alcohol, stand for long periods of time, exercise, or if the weather is hot. While you are taking this medicine, be careful to limit the amount of alcohol you drink. Also, use extra care during exercise or hot weather or if you must stand for long periods of time.

Do not stop using this medicine without checking first with your doctor. Your doctor may want you to gradually reduce the amount you are using before stopping it completely.

Side Effects of This Medicine:

Along with its needed effects, a medicine may cause some unwanted effects. Although not all of these side effects may occur, if they do occur they may need medical attention.

Check with your doctor immediately if any of the following side effects occur:

Rare
Bluish-colored lips, fingernails, or palms
dark urine
difficulty with breathing
dizziness or lightheadedness
fever
headache
pale skin
rapid heart rate
sore throat
unusual bleeding or bruising
unusual tiredness or weakness
Incidence not known
Arm, back, or jaw pain
blurred vision
chest pain or discomfort
chest tightness or heaviness
confusion
dizziness, faintness, or lightheadedness when getting up suddenly from a lying or sitting position
fainting
fast or irregular heartbeat
sweating

Get emergency help immediately if any of the following symptoms of overdose occur:

Symptoms of overdose
Blurred or loss of vision
bulging soft spot on the head of an infant
change in consciousness
change in the ability to see colors, especially blue or yellow
cold, clammy skin
convulsions
disturbed color perception
double vision
fast, irregular, pounding, or racing heartbeat or pulse
feeling of constant movement of self or surroundings
halos around lights
headache, severe and throbbing
increased sweating
loss of appetite
loss of consciousness
nausea
night blindness
overbright appearance of lights
paralysis
sensation of spinning
slow heartbeat
tunnel vision
vomiting

Other side effects not listed may also occur in some patients. If you notice any other effects, check with your healthcare professional.

Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to the FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.


Last Updated: 9/4/2017
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