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Allopurinol (Intravenous route)

Pronunciation:

al-oh-PURE-i-nol

Brand Names:

  • Aloprim

Dosage Forms:

  • Powder for Solution

Classifications:

Therapeutic—

Antigout

Pharmacologic—

Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitor

Uses of This Medicine:

Allopurinol injection is used to prevent or treat high uric acid levels in the blood that may be caused by cancer medicines. Allopurinol is a xanthine oxidase inhibitor that works by causing less uric acid to be produced by the body.

This medicine is to be given only by or under the direct supervision of a doctor.

Before Using This Medicine:

In deciding to use a medicine, the risks of taking the medicine must be weighed against the good it will do. This is a decision you and your doctor will make. For this medicine, the following should be considered:

Allergies—

Tell your doctor if you have ever had any unusual or allergic reaction to this medicine or any other medicines. Also tell your health care professional if you have any other types of allergies, such as to foods, dyes, preservatives, or animals. For non-prescription products, read the label or package ingredients carefully.

Children—

Appropriate studies performed to date have not demonstrated pediatric-specific problems that would limit the usefulness of allopurinol injection in children.

Older adults—

Appropriate studies performed to date have not demonstrated geriatric-specific problems that would limit the usefulness of allopurinol injection in the elderly. However, elderly patients are more likely to have age-related liver, kidney, or heart problems, which may require caution and an adjustment in the dose for patients receiving allopurinol injection.

Pregnancy—

Pregnancy CategoryExplanation
All TrimestersCAnimal studies have shown an adverse effect and there are no adequate studies in pregnant women OR no animal studies have been conducted and there are no adequate studies in pregnant women.

Breast-feeding—

Studies in women suggest that this medication poses minimal risk to the infant when used during breastfeeding.

Other medicines—

Although certain medicines should not be used together at all, in other cases two different medicines may be used together even if an interaction might occur. In these cases, your doctor may want to change the dose, or other precautions may be necessary. When you are receiving this medicine, it is especially important that your healthcare professional know if you are taking any of the medicines listed below. The following interactions have been selected on the basis of their potential significance and are not necessarily all-inclusive.

Using this medicine with any of the following medicines is not recommended. Your doctor may decide not to treat you with this medication or change some of the other medicines you take.

  • Didanosine

Using this medicine with any of the following medicines is usually not recommended, but may be required in some cases. If both medicines are prescribed together, your doctor may change the dose or how often you use one or both of the medicines.

  • Azathioprine
  • Captopril
  • Cyclophosphamide
  • Enalapril
  • Enalaprilat
  • Fluorouracil
  • Mercaptopurine
  • Pegloticase
  • Tegafur

Using this medicine with any of the following medicines may cause an increased risk of certain side effects, but using both drugs may be the best treatment for you. If both medicines are prescribed together, your doctor may change the dose or how often you use one or both of the medicines.

  • Cyclosporine
  • Phenprocoumon
  • Vidarabine
  • Warfarin

Other interactions—

Certain medicines should not be used at or around the time of eating food or eating certain types of food since interactions may occur. Using alcohol or tobacco with certain medicines may also cause interactions to occur. Discuss with your healthcare professional the use of your medicine with food, alcohol, or tobacco.

Other medical problems—

The presence of other medical problems may affect the use of this medicine. Make sure you tell your doctor if you have any other medical problems, especially:

  • Bone marrow problems or
  • Liver disease—Use with caution. May make these conditions worse.
  • Kidney disease—Use with caution. The effects may be increased because of slower removal of the medicine from the body.

Proper Use of This Medicine:

A nurse or other trained health professional will give you or your child this medicine in a hospital. This medicine is given through a needle placed in one of your veins.

Drink plenty of liquids while you are receiving this medicine to help prevent kidney stones. Check with your doctor about the amount of liquid you or your child should drink each day.

Precautions While Using This Medicine:

It is very important that your doctor check you or your child closely while you are receiving this medicine. This is to make sure that the medicine is working properly. Blood and urine tests may be needed to check for unwanted effects.

If you or your child develop a skin rash, hives, swelling of the lips or mouth, or any allergic reaction to this medicine, tell your doctor or nurse right away.

Check with your doctor right away if you or your child have pain or tenderness in the upper stomach; pale stools; dark urine; loss of appetite; nausea; unusual tiredness or weakness; or yellow eyes or skin. These could be symptoms of a serious liver problem.

This medicine may cause some people to become drowsy or less alert than they are normally. Make sure you know how you react to this medicine before you drive, use machines, or do anything else that could be dangerous if you are not alert.

Do not take other medicines unless they have been discussed with your doctor. This includes prescription or nonprescription (over-the-counter [OTC]) medicines and herbal or vitamin supplements.

Side Effects of This Medicine:

Along with its needed effects, a medicine may cause some unwanted effects. Although not all of these side effects may occur, if they do occur they may need medical attention.

Check with your doctor or nurse immediately if any of the following side effects occur:

Less common
Agitation
coma
confusion
decreased urine output
depression
dizziness
headache
hostility
irritability
lethargy
muscle twitching
nausea
rapid weight gain
seizures
stupor
swelling of the face, ankles, or hands
unusual tiredness or weakness
Rare
Abdominal or stomach pain
black, tarry stools
bladder pain
bleeding gums
blood in the urine or stools
blurred vision
changes in skin color
chest pain
chills
clay-colored stools
cloudy urine
cough or hoarseness
coughing up blood
dark urine
difficult, burning, or painful urination
difficulty with breathing or swallowing
difficulty with speaking
dilated neck veins
dizziness, faintness, or lightheadedness when getting up suddenly from a lying or sitting position
double vision
enlarged abdomen or stomach
extreme fatigue
fainting
fast or slow heartbeat
feeling of warmth
fever
frequent urge to urinate
inability to move the arms, legs, or facial muscles
inability to speak
increased menstrual flow or vaginal bleeding
increased sweating
irregular breathing
irregular heartbeat
itching
joint pain, stiffness, or swelling
lightheadedness
loosening of the fingernails
loss of appetite
loss of strength or energy
lower back or side pain
muscle pain or weakness
nosebleeds
numbness, tingling, pain, or weakness in the hands or feet
pain
pain, tenderness, or swelling of the foot or leg
paralysis
pinpoint red spots on the skin
prolonged bleeding from cuts
rapid, shallow breathing
rash
red or black, tarry stools
red or dark brown urine
redness of the face, neck, arms, and occasionally, upper chest
shortness of breath
slow speech
sore throat
sores, ulcers, or white spots on the lips or in the mouth
sudden shortness of breath or troubled breathing
sweating
swelling of the fingers, feet, or lower legs
swollen glands
tightness in the chest
troubled breathing
unpleasant breath odor
unusual bleeding or bruising
unusual weak feeling
vomiting of blood
weight gain
wheezing
yellow eyes or skin

Some side effects may occur that usually do not need medical attention. These side effects may go away during treatment as your body adjusts to the medicine. Also, your health care professional may be able to tell you about ways to prevent or reduce some of these side effects. Check with your health care professional if any of the following side effects continue or are bothersome or if you have any questions about them:

Less common or rare
Diarrhea
drowsiness
indigestion
stomach pain
unusual hair loss
Rare
Bleeding, blistering, burning, coldness, discoloration of the skin, feeling of pressure, hives, infection, inflammation, itching, lumps, numbness, pain, rash, redness, scarring, soreness, stinging, swelling, tenderness, tingling, ulceration, or warmth at the injection site
body aches or pain
congestion
cracked lips
difficulty with moving
hair loss or thinning of the hair
hives or welts
itching, pain, redness, swelling, tenderness, or warmth on the skin
muscle stiffness
redness of the skin
runny nose
voice changes

Other side effects not listed may also occur in some patients. If you notice any other effects, check with your healthcare professional.

Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to the FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.


Last Updated: 7/4/2017
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