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Apraclonidine (Ophthalmic route)

Pronunciation:

a-pra-KLON-i-deen

Brand Names:

  • Iopidine

Dosage Forms:

  • Solution

Classifications:

Therapeutic

Antiglaucoma

Pharmacologic

Alpha-2 Adrenergic Agonist

Uses of This Medicine:

Apraclonidine 0.5% is used to treat glaucoma when the medications you have been using for glaucoma do not reduce your eye pressure enough.

Apraclonidine 1% is used just before and after certain types of eye surgery (argon laser trabeculoplasty, argon laser iridotomy, and Nd:YAG laser posterior capsulotomy). The medicine is used to control or prevent a rise in pressure within the eye (ocular hypertension) that can occur after this type of surgery.

Apraclonidine 0.5% is available only with your doctor's prescription.

Before Using This Medicine:

In deciding to use a medicine, the risks of taking the medicine must be weighed against the good it will do. This is a decision you and your doctor will make. For this medicine, the following should be considered:

Allergies

Tell your doctor if you have ever had any unusual or allergic reaction to this medicine or any other medicines. Also tell your health care professional if you have any other types of allergies, such as to foods, dyes, preservatives, or animals. For non-prescription products, read the label or package ingredients carefully.

Children

Studies on this medicine have been done only in adult patients, and there is no specific information comparing use of apraclonidine in children with use in other age groups.

Older adults

Many medicines have not been studied specifically in older people. Therefore, it may not be known whether they work exactly the same way they do in younger adults or if they cause different side effects or problems in older people. There is no specific information comparing use of apraclonidine in the elderly with use in other age groups.

Pregnancy

Pregnancy CategoryExplanation
All TrimestersCAnimal studies have shown an adverse effect and there are no adequate studies in pregnant women OR no animal studies have been conducted and there are no adequate studies in pregnant women.

Breast-feeding

There are no adequate studies in women for determining infant risk when using this medication during breastfeeding. Weigh the potential benefits against the potential risks before taking this medication while breastfeeding.

Other medicines

Although certain medicines should not be used together at all, in other cases two different medicines may be used together even if an interaction might occur. In these cases, your doctor may want to change the dose, or other precautions may be necessary. Tell your healthcare professional if you are taking any other prescription or nonprescription (over-the-counter [OTC]) medicine.

Other interactions

Certain medicines should not be used at or around the time of eating food or eating certain types of food since interactions may occur. Using alcohol or tobacco with certain medicines may also cause interactions to occur. Discuss with your healthcare professional the use of your medicine with food, alcohol, or tobacco.

Other medical problems

The presence of other medical problems may affect the use of this medicine. Make sure you tell your doctor if you have any other medical problems, especially:

  • Depression or
  • Heart or blood vessel disease or
  • High blood pressure Apraclonidine may make the condition worse
  • Kidney disease or
  • Liver disease Higher blood levels of apraclonidine may result, which may lead to increased side effects
  • Unusual reaction to a medicine that reduces the pressure within the eye Apraclonidine is a strong reducer of eye pressure and could also cause this reaction
  • Vasovagal attack (history of) The signs and symptoms are paleness, nausea, sweating, slow heartbeat, sudden and severe tiredness or weakness, and possibly fainting, usually brought on by emotional stress caused by fear or pain. Apraclonidine may cause this reaction to happen again

Proper Use of This Medicine:

If your doctor ordered two different eye drops to be used together, wait at least 10 minutes between the times you apply the medicines. This will help to keep the second medicine from ''washing out'' the first one.

To use the eye drops:

  • First, wash your hands. Tilt the head back and, pressing your finger gently on the skin just beneath the lower eyelid, pull the lower eyelid away from the eye to make a space. Drop the medicine into this space. Let go of the eyelid and gently close the eyes. Do not blink. Keep the eyes closed and apply pressure to the inner corner of the eye with your finger for 1 or 2 minutes to allow the medicine to be absorbed by the eye.
  • If you think you did not get the drop of medicine into your eye properly, use another drop.
  • To keep the medicine as germ-free as possible, do not touch the applicator tip to any surface (including the eye). Also, keep the container tightly closed.

Use this medicine only as directed. Do not use more of it and do not use it more often than your doctor ordered. To do so may increase the chance of too much medicine being absorbed into the body and the chance of side effects.

It is important that your doctor check your progress at regular visits. This is to make sure the medicine is working properly.

Dosing

The dose of this medicine will be different for different patients. Follow your doctor's orders or the directions on the label. The following information includes only the average doses of this medicine. If your dose is different, do not change it unless your doctor tells you to do so.

The amount of medicine that you take depends on the strength of the medicine. Also, the number of doses you take each day, the time allowed between doses, and the length of time you take the medicine depend on the medical problem for which you are using the medicine.

  • For ophthalmic solution (eye drops) dosage form:
    • For glaucoma (0.5% apraclonidine):
      • Adults Use one drop in each eye two or three times a day.
      • Children Use and dose must be determined by your doctor.
    • For preventing ocular hypertension before and after eye surgery (1% apraclonidine):
      • Adults One drop is placed in the affected eye one hour before surgery, then one drop in the same eye immediately after surgery.
      • Children Use and dose must be determined by your doctor.

Missed dose

If you miss a dose of this medicine, take it as soon as possible. However, if it is almost time for your next dose, skip the missed dose and go back to your regular dosing schedule. Do not double doses.

Storage

Store the medicine in a closed container at room temperature, away from heat, moisture, and direct light. Keep from freezing.

Keep out of the reach of children.

Do not keep outdated medicine or medicine no longer needed.

The 0.5% eye drops may be stored in the refrigerator.

Precautions While Using This Medicine:

This medicine may cause some people to become dizzy, drowsy, or less alert than they are normally. Make sure you know how you react to this medicine before you drive, use machines, or do anything else that could be dangerous if you are not alert.

Apraclonidine may cause your eyes to become more sensitive to light than they are normally. Wearing sunglasses and avoiding too much exposure to bright light may help lessen the discomfort.

Side Effects of This Medicine:

Along with its needed effects, a medicine may cause some unwanted effects. Although not all of these side effects may occur, if they do occur they may need medical attention.

Check with your doctor as soon as possible if any of the following side effects occur:

For 0.5% apraclonidine
More common
Allergic reaction (redness, itching, tearing of eye)
Less common or rare
Blurred vision or change in vision
chest pain
clumsiness or unsteadiness
depression
dizziness
eye discharge, irritation, or pain
irregular heartbeat
numbness or tingling in fingers or toes
raising of upper eyelid
rash around eyes
redness of eyelid, or inner lining of eyelid
swelling of eye, eyelid, or inner lining of eyelid
swelling of face, hands, or feet
wheezing or troubled breathing
For 1% apraclonidine
Less common or rare
Allergic reaction (redness of eye or inner lining of eyelid, swelling of eyelid, watering of eye)
irregular heartbeat

Some side effects may occur that usually do not need medical attention. These side effects may go away during treatment as your body adjusts to the medicine. Also, your health care professional may be able to tell you about ways to prevent or reduce some of these side effects. Check with your health care professional if any of the following side effects continue or are bothersome or if you have any questions about them:

For 0.5% apraclonidine
More common
Dryness of mouth
eye discomfort
Less common or rare
Change in taste or smell
constipation
crusting or scales on eyelid or corner of eye
discoloration of white part of eye
drowsiness or sleepiness
dry nose or eyes
general feeling of discomfort or illness
headache
increased sensitivity of eyes to light
muscle aches
nausea
nervousness
paleness of eye or inner lining of eyelid
runny nose
sore throat
tiredness or weakness
trouble in sleeping
For 1% apraclonidine
More common
Increase in size of pupil of eye
paleness of eye or inner lining of eyelid
raising of upper eyelid
Less common or rare
Runny nose

Other side effects not listed may also occur in some patients. If you notice any other effects, check with your healthcare professional.

Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to the FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.


Last Updated: 10/12/2016
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