The mucosal lining of the cavity of the uterus is called the endometrium. It is this lining which undergoes changes over the course of the monthly menstrual cycle, sloughs off and becomes part of the menses. A biopsy of the endometrium is used to check for disease or problems of fertility.
Reviewed By: Cynthia D. White, MD, Fellow American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, Group Health Cooperative, Bellevue, WA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.