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Steroid injections - tendon, bursa, joint

Definition

A steroid injection is a shot of medicine used to relieve a swollen or inflamed area that is often painful. It can be injected into a joint, tendon, or bursa.

Alternative Names

Corticosteroid injection; Cortisone injection; Bursitis - steroid; Tendonitis - steroid

Description

Your health care provider inserts a small needle and injects medicine into the painful and inflamed area. Depending on the site, your provider may use an x-ray or ultrasound to see where to place the needle.

For this procedure:

  • You will lie on a table and the injection area will be cleaned.
  • A numbing medicine may be applied to the injection site.
  • You may be given medicine to help you relax.

Steroid injections can be given into a bursa, joint, or tendon.

BURSA

A bursa is a sac filled with fluid that acts as a cushion between tendons, bones, and joints. Swelling in the bursa is called bursitis. Using a small needle, your provider will inject a small amount of corticosteroid and a local anesthetic into the bursa.

JOINT

Any joint problem, such as arthritis, can cause inflammation and pain. Your provider will start by removing any excess fluid in the joint using a separate needle. Your provider will put another needle in the joint, using ultrasound or an x-ray machine to see where to place it. A small amount of corticosteroid and a local anesthetic will be injected into the joint.

TENDON

A tendon is a band of fibers that connects muscle to bone. Soreness in the tendon causes tendonitis. Your provider will put a needle directly into the tendon and inject a small amount of corticosteroid and a local anesthetic.

You'll be given a local anesthetic along with the steroid injection to relieve your pain right away. The steroid will take 5 to 7 days or so to start working.

Why the Procedure is Performed

This procedure aims to relieve pain and inflammation in a bursa, joint, or tendon.

Risks

Risks of steroid injection may include:

  • Bruising at the site of the injection
  • Swelling
  • Irritation and discoloration of the skin at the injection site
  • Allergic reaction to the medicine
  • Infection
  • Bleeding in the bursa, joint, or tendon
  • Damage to nerves near the joint or soft tissue
  • An increase in your blood glucose level for several days after the injection if you have diabetes

Before the Procedure

Your provider will tell you about the advantages and possible risks of the injection.

Tell your provider about any:

  • Health problems
  • Medicines you take, including over-the-counter medicines, herbs, and supplements
  • Allergies

Ask your provder if you should to have someone drive you home.

After the Procedure

The procedure takes little time. You can go home the same day.

  • You might have slight swelling and redness around the injection site.
  • If you have swelling, apply ice over the site for 15 to 20 minutes, 2 to 3 times per day. Use an ice pack wrapped in a cloth. Do NOT apply ice directly to skin.
  • Avoid a lot of activity the day you get the shot.

If you have diabetes, your provider will advise you to check your glucose level more often for 1 to 5 days. The steroid that was injected can raise your blood sugar level, most often only by a small amount.

Look for pain, redness, swelling, or fever. Contact your provider if these signs are becoming worse.

Outlook (Prognosis)

You may notice a decrease in your pain for the first few hours after the shot. This is due to the numbing medicine. However, this effect will wear off.

After the numbing medicine wears off, the same pain you were having before may return. This may last several days. The effect of the injection will start usually 5 to 7 days after the injection. This can decrease your symptoms.

At some point, most people feel less or no pain in the tendon, bursa, or joint after a steroid injection. Depending on the problem, your pain may or may not return again.

References

Barkdull TJ, O'Conner FG, McShane JM. Joint and soft tissue aspiration and injection. In: Pfenninger JL, Fowler GC, eds. Pfenninger and Fowler's Procedures for Primary Care. 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2011:chap 192.

Provenzano DA, Chandwani K. Joint injections. In: Benzon HT, Rathmell JP, Wu CL, Turk DC, Argoff CE, Hurley WR, eds. Practical Management of Pain. 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2014:chap 71.

Schrank KS. Joint disorders. In: Adams JG, ed. Emergency Medicine. 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:chap 107.


Review Date: 3/24/2016
Reviewed By: C. Benjamin Ma, MD, Professor, Chief, Sports Medicine and Shoulder Service, UCSF Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, San Francisco, CA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.
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