Osmolality urine test
The osmolality urine test measures the concentration of particles in urine.
Osmolality can also be measured using a blood test.
How the Test is Performed
A clean-catch urine sample is needed. The clean-catch method is used to prevent germs from the penis or vagina from getting into a urine sample. To collect your urine, the health care provider may give you a special clean-catch kit that contains a cleansing solution and sterile wipes. Follow instructions exactly so that the results are accurate.
How to Prepare for the Test
Your health care provider may tell you that you need to limit your fluid intake 12 to 14 hours before the test.
Your provider will ask you to temporarily stop taking any medicines that may affect the test results. Be sure to tell your provider about all the medicines you take, including dextran and sucrose. DO NOT stop taking any medicine before talking to your provider.
Also tell your provider if you recently received intravenous dye (contrast medium) for an x-ray. The dye can also affect test results.
How the Test will Feel
The test involves normal urination. There is no discomfort.
Why the Test is Performed
This test helps check your body's water balance and urine concentration.
Osmolality is a more exact measurement of urine concentration than the urine specific gravity test.
Normal values are as follows:
- Random specimen: 50 to 1200 mosm/kg
- 12 to 14 hour fluid restriction: Greater than 850 mosm/kg
Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Some labs use different measurements or test different samples. Talk to your provider about the meaning of your specific test results.
What Abnormal Results Mean
Abnormal results are indicated as follows:
Higher than normal measurements may indicate:
- Heart failure
- Loss of body fluids (dehydration)
- Narrowing of the kidney artery (renal artery stenosis)
- Sugar (glucose) in the urine
- Syndrome of inappropriate ADH secretion (SIADH)
Lower than normal measurements may indicate:
- Damage to kidney tubule cells (renal tubular necrosis)
- Drinking too much fluid
- Kidney failure
- Severe kidney infection (pyelonephritis)
There are no risks with this test.
Inker LA, Fan L, Levey AS. Assessment of renal function. In: Johnson RJ, Feehally J, Floege J. Comprehensive Clinical Nephrology. 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 3.
McPherson RA, Ben-Ezra J. Basic examination of urine. In: McPherson RA, Pincus MR, eds. Henry's Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods. 22nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 28.
Reviewed By: Laura J. Martin, MD, MPH, ABIM Board Certified in Internal Medicine and Hospice and Palliative Medicine, Atlanta, GA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.