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Mumps

Definition

Mumps is a contagious disease that leads to painful swelling of the salivary glands. The salivary glands produce saliva, a liquid that moistens food and helps you chew and swallow.

Alternative Names

Epidemic parotitis; Viral parotitis; Parotitis

Causes

Mumps is caused by a virus. The virus spreads from person to person by drops of moisture from the nose and mouth, such as through sneezing. It is also spread through direct contact with items that have infected saliva on them.

Mumps most often occurs in children ages 2 through 12 who have not been vaccinated against the disease. However, the infection can occur at any age and may also be seen in college age students.

The time between being exposed to the virus and getting sick (incubation period) is about 12 to 25 days.

Mumps may also infect the:

Symptoms

Symptoms of mumps may include:

  • Face pain
  • Fever
  • Headache
  • Sore throat
  • Loss of appetite
  • Swelling of the parotid glands (the largest salivary glands, located between the ear and the jaw)
  • Swelling of the temples or jaw (temporomandibular area)

Other symptoms that can occur in males are:

Exams and Tests

The health care provider will perform an exam and ask about the symptoms, especially when they started.

No tests are needed in most cases. The provider can usually diagnose mumps by looking at the symptoms.

Blood tests may be needed to confirm the diagnosis.

Treatment

There is no specific treatment for mumps. The following things can be done to relieve symptoms:

  • Apply ice or heat packs to the neck area.
  • Take acetaminophen (Tylenol) to relieve pain. DO NOT give aspirin to children with a viral illness because of the risk for Reye syndrome.
  • Drink extra fluid.
  • Eat soft foods.
  • Gargle with warm salt water.

Outlook (Prognosis)

People with this disease do well most of the time, even if organs are involved. After the illness is over, they'll be immune to mumps for the rest of their life.

Possible Complications

Infection of other organs may occur, including testicle swelling (orchitis).

When to Contact a Medical Professional

Call your provider if you or your child has mumps along with:

Call the local emergency number (such as 911) or visit the emergency room if convulsions occur.

Prevention

MMR immunization (vaccine) protects against measles, mumps, and rubella. It should be given to children at these ages:

  • First dose: 12 through 15 months old
  • Second dose: 4 through 6 years old

Adults can also receive the vaccine. Talk to your provider about this.

Recent outbreaks of the mumps have supported the importance of having all children vaccinated.

References

Gnann JW. Mumps. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine. 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 369.

Litman N, Baum SG. Mumps virus. In: Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, eds. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases, Updated Edition. 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 159.

Mason WH. Mumps. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St. Geme JW, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 248.


Review Date: 5/18/2016
Reviewed By: Neil K. Kaneshiro, MD, MHA, Clinical Assistant Professor of Pediatrics, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.
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