Proctitis is an inflammation of the rectum. It can cause discomfort, bleeding, and the discharge of mucus or pus.
Inflammation - rectum; Rectal inflammation
There are many causes of proctitis. They can be grouped as follows:
- Inflammatory bowel disease
- Autoimmune disease
- Harmful substances
- Non-sexually transmitted infection
- Sexually transmitted disease (STD)
Infections that are not sexually transmitted are less common than STD proctitis. One type of proctitis not from an STD is an infection in children that is caused by the same bacteria as strep throat.
Proctitis may also be caused by some medicines, radiotherapy or inserting harmful substances into the rectum.
Risk factors include:
- Autoimmune disorders, including inflammatory bowel disease
- High-risk sexual practices, such as anal sex
- Bloody stools
- Rectal bleeding
- Rectal discharge, pus
- Rectal pain or discomfort
- Tenesmus (pain with bowel movement)
Exams and Tests
Tests that may be used include:
Most of the time, proctitis will go away when the cause of the problem is treated. Antibiotics are used if an infection is causing the problem.
Corticosteroids or mesalamine suppositories or enemas may relieve symptoms for some people.
The outcome is good with treatment.
Complications may include:
When to Contact a Medical Professional
Call your health care provider if you have symptoms of proctitis.
Safe sex practices may help prevent the spread of the disease.
Abdelnaby A, Downs JM. Diseases of the anorectum. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt LJ, eds. Sleisenger and Fordtran's Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease. 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 129.
Coates WC. Disorders of the anorectum. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et al, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice. 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 96.
Reviewed By: Michael M. Phillips, MD, Clinical Professor of Medicine, The George Washington University School of Medicine, Washington, DC. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.