Viral arthritis is swelling and irritation (inflammation) of a joint caused by a viral infection.
Infectious arthritis - viral
Arthritis may be a symptom of many virus-related illnesses. It usually disappears on its own without any lasting effects.
It may occur with:
- Dengue virus
- Hepatitis B
- Hepatitis C
- Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
- Human parvovirus
It may also occur after immunization with the rubella vaccine, which is typically given to children.
While many people are infected with these viruses or receive the rubella vaccine, only a few people develop arthritis. No risk factors are known.
Exams and Tests
A physical examination shows joint inflammation. A blood test for viruses may be performed. In some cases, a small amount of fluid may be removed from the affected joint to determine the cause of the inflammation.
Your health care provider may prescribe pain medicines to relieve discomfort. You may also be prescribed anti-inflammatory medicines.
If joint inflammation is severe, aspiration of fluid from the affected joint may relieve pain.
The outcome is usually good. Most viral arthritis disappears within several days or weeks when the virus-related disease goes away.
When to Contact a Medical Professional
Call for an appointment with your provider if arthritis symptoms last longer than a few weeks.
Gasque P. Viral arthritis. In: Firestein GS, Budd RC, Gabriel SE, McInnes IB, O'Dell JR, eds. Kelly and Firestein's Textbook of Rheumatology. 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 114.
Ohl CA, Forster D. Infectious arthritis of native joints. In: Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, eds. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases, Updated Edition. 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 105.
Reveille JD. Rheumatic manifestations of human immunodeficiency virus infection. In: Firestein GS, Budd RC, Gabriel SE, McInnes IB, O'Dell JR, eds. Kelly and Firestein's Textbook of Rheumatology. 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 113.
Reviewed By: Jatin M. Vyas, MD, PhD, Assistant Professor in Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Assistant in Medicine, Division of Infectious Disease, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.